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Zhetysu
Kazakhstan Zhetysu. Zhetysu Valley - Kazakhstan

Zhetysu - the Ily valley... The most beautiful, distinctive part of Kazakhstan... For many centuries it has preserved the secrets of its history; discoveries of modern scientists have led to "a well of answers". It is already known that for ages people selected the "seven rivers" area as their "living region" - they built cities, and developed irrigated agriculture and cattle breeding. Processes of interaction between nomadic cultures and ancient civilizations occurred most intensively here due to the Great Silk Road, whose northern route passed through the Zhetysu connecting the East and the West to Eurasia.

Zhetysu Valley. Kazakhstan pictures The geographical name of Zhetysu, Semirechye in Russian, appeared in 1840 when the advancement of the Siberian Cossack army of the Russian Empire from Semipalatinsk city towards the southwest shore of Balkhash Lake began. The first stage of conquest was the construction of a fort in the Dzungarian Alatau in 1847.

From then on, the nickname Zhetysu (Semirechye) was used to refer to the entire Dzungar area, and later over an area from Tarbagatay up to the Ily and from Balkhash to the Chinese border (the future Lepsy and Kopal districts). Subsequently Zailijsky region (Vernij and Dzharkent districts), Zachujsky region (Pishpeksky and Aulieatynsky districts) and Issyk-Kul region (Przhevalsky district) were also included within the Semirechye borders.

In 1854 the name Semirechye, Semirechensky region, and Semirechensky district with its center in Verniy city had its official status and name entered into the geographical nomenclature.

In the first post-revolutionary years, before delimitation of the Kazakh and Kyrgyz autonomous republics in 1924, existed the Zhetysujskaja province, which was a part of the Turkistan Soviet Republic.

The word "Semirechye" is an exact translation of the Kazakh word "Zhetysu". I suppose that one of the gorges in the Dzungarian Alatau mountains was called thus, which in those times had as its name the Semirechynsky Alatau. Most likely the word "Semirechye" was not used in its literal sense as "seven rivers" but meant "abounding in water", in contrast to the dry steppes of the eastern Balkhash area. There is an opinion that the word "Semirechye" was understood as a kind of "blessed land" through which seven rivers flow.

A prominent expert in toponymics, E. Kojchubaev, believes that the word "seven" in the given toponymics designates "abundance", and Zhetysu is defined as a "fluvial area".

Nature of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan pictures As a specific geographical area, the Semirechye was delimited by I. V. Mushketov, who conducted geological research here from 1874 to 1880. The result was the creation a geological map of the Semirechye by him and G. D. Romanov, and a detailed geological description of Turkistan, which contains rich material and general descriptions of the Semirechye.

A given article considers Northeast Semirechye (Ily valley). Its western border is Chu-Ily mountains, in east the border passes through Alakul hollow, in north - it is an edge of Balkhash, in south and southwest - mountain spurs Tyan-Shan - Zajlijsky and Dzungarian Alatau.

All territory of Semirechye is divided into two big regions - Northeast (Ily valley) and Southwest (Chu - Ily interfluve). Northeast region is included, in administrative terms, in structure of Almaty district within limits of 2001.

In south and southeast Semirechye is fringed by Tyan-Shan's spurs, and in north by Saryesik-Otyrau desert and northern coast of Balkhash Lake. Numerous rivers are pulled out from mountains, from tightly located gorges, to plain - the largest rivers rush towards Balkhash, and small ones flow into Ily that is a huge blue artery crossing Semirechye from southeast to northwest.

From time immemorial people settled on coast of Ily, Coksu, Aksu, Caratal, Lepsy rivers... This choice was guided by intuition: it was a beneficial place for living. It is pertinent to recall the statement of an outstanding geo- botanist R.I.Abolina who named the factors that determine person's attachment to any kind of place: "By imposing climatic, vegetative and soil zones, we derive thus so-called living zones, which equally determine geographical landscapes and also the conditions for agriculture of each given area".

For "living zones" of Semirechye strongly marked vertical position from north to south is typical. If moving from Balkhash to mountains, then the first is wormwood - cereal zone (ideal winter pastures); the second is cereal - steppe zone (sewaged agriculture, cattle breeding, here is the best pastures for large horned livestock); the third is forbs-steppe of high foothills zone (agriculture, cattle breeding, except for winter cattle herding); the fourth is located in mountains - wood or meadow (cattle herding during three summer months); the fifth is a high-mountainous zone (summer pastures, zhajlau, during 1,5-2 months).

Pasture lands constituted more than two thirds of all ground resources of a valley. For a long time its division into zones contributed to the development of nomadic, vertical, driven away and by the house cattle breeding. At the same time the presence of grounds in foothills and valleys of the rivers with optimum moisture provision furthered spreading of agriculture including the use of an artificial irrigation.

Nature of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan pictures Features of the environment resources in Ily valley have given the opportunities for long coexistence of settled and nomadic societies which are considered as one of the major specific feature of the East.

The beginning of development of Ily valley by a man refers to the epoch of ancient stone century. Upperpaleolitic tools, for example, found by archeologists in thickness of loessial loams of Kargaly gorge.

In Bronze Age that is 4-2 thousand years ago Semirechye was already "densely" enough populated by "Andronov" tribes of bronze age that is the name archeologists of culture gave to them. Among most well investigated are Seriktas, Assa, Kzylbulak. Necropolises (burial grounds) of this culture were investigated, among them are Karakuduk, Kzylbulak, Kulsaj which contain burials in stone boxes, in constructions made from tree - fells were cremation was made - burning of dead man or burial in writhed (uterine) positions, head to west. People of that time thought that "country of dead" was located there.

Andronovs were farmers and cattle breeders; mainly they were connected with nature. It is thought that they became inventers of vertical nomading, when in summer cattle were taken to zhailyau, and in winters to sand and lower mountainous rivers which were rich in grass - free from snows caused by winds. Ancient people dealt with cattle, horses, camels, goat and sheep. In fields and gardens they grew millet and other plants.

The greatest event of Eurasian history is the emergence of cultures that are genetically linked to cultures Bronze age. In 13th century B.C. 3rd century A.D. in Asian steppe zones cultural community was formed that included a number of local cultures were formed. It was Sac and Usun cultures in Ily valley. Monuments of these areas are well investigated, they are: Besshatyr burial ground, Issyk barrow, Karaguma burial grounds, Aktas settlement. One of the outstanding events of archeology of 20th century is excavation of Issyk barrow near Almaty. K.A.Akishev and B.N.Nurmuhanbetov archeologists found it.

Excavations have shown that in the barrow, in rectangular timbered chamber under an embankment with diameter of 60 m and height of 6 m, a notable person belonging to imperial family was buried.

Не was lying at northern wall on a floor made from wooden executioner's blocks and was closed by embroidered golden pattern coverlet. There were clay and metal vessels in a headboard, along western wall of the chamber. On a small silver cup that was in a tomb 26 marks of unknown writing were scratched. Near it there was a silver spoon with handle as a head of a heron. Wooden utensils occupied southern side of the chamber: rectangular sacrificial trays, round bowls and carved figured scoops.

History of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan pictures That buried man was dressed in ceremonial clothes sheathed with hundreds of golden patterns. There was high conic kulah-cap on his head. Notable sacs of sac-tigrahauda were represented in such "arrow shaped" caps ("Sacs in peaked caps") on a relief of a ladder in Persepolis (capital of Iran Ahemenidov epoch 6-4th centuries B.C.). The leader was dressed in red suede trousers that refueled in high heelless boots sheathed with golden patterns in shape of trileave. He was dressed in thin, probably, a silk shirt, and a short suede camisole sheathed with golden patterns, stamped in shape of trileave and a head of a tiger.

It was national dress simulating protective Armour-Heavy typesetting belt, consisting of cast lamellar patterns - plaquettes on which fantastic horse-deer-griffon and moose's heads were depicted, covered the waist of king. On the right of a sword belt in red wooden sheath a sword was hanging.

Its handle was twisted with a golden wire, and the top fitted with a golden foil in form of griffon head. The blade was inlaid with golden plates with images of various beasts.

Researchers think that Sac's notions on authority are linked with cosmology. King personified "world tree". He was an axis and the center of the universe. Marks of authority meant identity of structure of the union of tribes and space.

Evident marks of art in "animal style" expresses the general features of cosmogony - a core of ideologies of the big tribal associations and the early states.

Sacs of Semirechye had writing that is a bright evidence of having state form that included cattle breeding and agricultural tribes. Later it had broken up under the impacts of Juedzhej and Usuns who seized the power in that region in 3rd century B.C.

Although it is known all over the world about treasures of Issyk barrow it is less known about treasures of other Sacs that were found on the territory of Zhetysu. This first of all concerns Zhalauly treasures, named after the place where it was found - a small village near Kegen village 200 kms to the east of Almaty city.

Archeologists who investigated the place of findings determined that all things found in a felt bag that was buried in the ground by unknown "hunter after treasures" in the beginning of 20th century. All golden items, among which are work pieces of the Kazakh jewelers, were extracted from plundered Sacs' barrows of Kegen valley that was one of the centers of Sac settlement.

History of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan pictures
Among more than two hundred items metal plates of a type-setting belt, ornaments of clothes and a headdress, and also pectoral that is a breast ornament are outlined. Pectoral represents a massive oval formed plate decorated on edges with a border from twisted golden dart-wire. On the ends of it loops for suspension were saved.

Preliminary dating of items of Zhalauly treasures if outgoing from analogies to similar items from other areas of Sac culture and from Scythian culture on Altai, in Siberia, in Priaralye, Prichernomorye, can be determined from 7 to 5th centuries B.C.

In 3rd century B.C. after Sac state - Usun state with Chigu city as a capital was formed. Location of main Usun city, former residence of Usun lords, is not still precisely determined. The most preferable localizations of Chigu are coast of Issyk Kul or valley of the river Kegen.

It is also interesting that an ancient entomim Usun has remained in Zhetysu as the name of large Kazakh tribe Uysun. Some researchers consider it as ethnogenetical relationship of Usuns and Kazakhs.

Outstanding items of Usun and Sac are made from bronze. "Bronze art of Semirechye" such name is applicable to complexes of items made from bronze that include fixtures-censer, boilers, and sacrificial tables. Usually these items are found as hidden treasures, casually. Once people using these things, have hidden them, and then for some reasons they have left them unused until the happy case that has "revived" them, having returned to new purpose as exhibits of museums and subjects of scientific researches.

Hidden treasures are mostly found in foothill zones - usually in those places that are most convenient as spring and autumn pastures, rich with herbage, water, wood and surprisingly picturesque. Dated as a bronze age of early nomads - Sacs and Usuns lived here since 8th century B.C. till 4th century A.D.

However the majority of items were made in narrower time interval from 4th century B.C. - 3rd century A.D. Many of similar items are masterpieces of highly artistic craft, output of outstanding artists.

Usun sanctuary was found on the left coast of Almatinki river on territory of Almaty city. Round platform was cleared away that had the sizes of 130 square meters, profound on 0,4 m in the ground. Censers and boilers were found on the platform. One of the boilers lying near to censer, was iron made with horizontal handles, others two bronze and were submitted by fragments.

Presumably, the platform of a temple was once enclosed with low earthen shaft or a wall.

Thus, now it is clear, that bronze items are linked to the ancient sanctuaries that were settled down in picturesque places: in foothills and mountain gorges. The found items are cult and their semantics are complex. They are not simply utilitarian items intended for preparation and submission of food; they are not simple fixtures but the items that have the direct relation to outlook and spiritual culture of people.

Sac and Usun's sanctuaries were, in understandings of theirs organizers together with cult items and first of all with the fixtures supporting fire, original channels of space communication of people with the Supreme deities who lived at tops of mountains, incorporated to the top world. Researchers are right who emphasized that environmental nature and a landscape of Semirechye with snow-white tops of "gold mountains of the world", the realities of life, that determined the movements from steppe to bottom of mountains and to their tops, from wintering to summering contributed to mythological traditions that represent the Universe as grandiose mountain or a stone.

History of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan pictures
The altar about which we have spoken above, found near an experimental station "Young naturalist" consists of a round dish on an openwork conic support. Its main part which has meaning of support is dish. On the edge of a dish sculptural figures of bulls-zebu are fixed with characteristic for this breed of animals a hump on crests. Muzzles of bulls are slightly lowered and moved on the left to outside.

Probably, boilers took the second place as per value for the series of sacred bronze of Semirechye in which meat of sacrificial animals was cooked. The sizes of boilers are various: from huge ones whose capacities are from hundred liters of water to small ones whose capacity up to 5-7 liters. The sizes of boilers, most likely, depended on their purposes or on family of a tribe.

According to the number of boilers in hidden treasures it is possible to judge about character of sanctuaries, about their hierarchy from patrimonial up to breeding and probably, a nation-wide. This implies, that, except for utilitarian purpose boilers had deep symbolical sense.

The third compounds of hidden treasures of ritual bronze were sacrificial tables. Their several copies are known.

The greatest popularity has received so-called "Semirechye altar". It was found in 1912 on the territory of Bolshoj station of Verniy city.

Table is rectangular (113X126 cm) with side height up to 6,5 cm. Each side has horizontal handle for carrying. It has four low round section legs with height 22 sm. On a side round perimeter figures of winged leopards (tigers) are located in rhythmic repetition one by one. In total there were thirty, but only 25 are left.

Images repeat figures of winged leopards depicted on the fixtures from vicinities of Almaty that are described above. It is possible, that once the altar and the fixtures were part of a uniform ritual complex of one sanctuary. Certainly, figures of winged leopards on a side of a table, as well as in case of fixtures, were defense counsels of its space, probably, symbolizing the ground of Sacs.

Purpose of the tables are clear - meat of sacrificial animals that were cooked in boilers were placed on them which then was eaten by participants of cult rites and festivals which most likely related to reviving nature, to a spring equinox, to Nauryz - New year. It was the greatest and most ancient holiday of Eurasia people.

Era of Middle Age symbolized the beginning of Turkic states - their languages, their original culture. States of western Turkic, turgesh, karluk, oguz, kypchak, and karaganid arise and replace each other at this time.

Ethnopolitical associations are formed that have become direct predecessors and ancestors of turcolangual nations including Kazakh.

Spiritual culture has risen on a new step. Turkic writing, literature emerged. Familiarizations to great religions such as Zorastisim, Buddhism, maniheizm, Christianity, and Islam have started.

History of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan pictures
Cities and city culture linked to Great Silk Road as well as all steppe lines with civilizations of Eurasia developed. The peculiar culture representing synthesis of city and steppe, agriculture and cattle breeding is created.

However, it is necessary to emphasize that this medieval settled city culture continued the traditions of culture of Sacs and Usuns epoch.

The first cities in Zhetysu are formed at the end of 8th century. There were only several cities and settlements on huge territory of a valley at those times. But they were already centers where peculiar culture developed. They were administrative centers, headquarters of the representatives of elite of the society. Handicraftsmen settled near them who made pottery and weapon, ornaments and fabrics. Grain, fruit, and vegetables were carried here from the next settlements. Gradually, merchants from next areas and distant countries began to arrive. Monks and priests preaching belief in the Christ and Buddha, Zoroastrian and Mohammed were pulled after them. One of branches of Silk way that moved here gave pulse to city development.

Gradually, dramatic changes take place in headquarter. To emphasize authority, greatness, governor erects a palace to himself with apartments and a ceremonial hall, rooms for wives and barracks for a team, warehouses and stables. For this purpose he invites professional masters-builders, sometimes from apart. Walls of ceremonial halls and apartments are decorated with images of feasts and wars, gods and heroes. Now thin clay walls do not surround the headquarter: powerful serfdom constructions with near gate facilities, fettered by iron gates, towers on corners of high walls, with a ditch around transform the headquarter into a terrible unapproachable citadel.

In middle of 10th century Semirechye became a part of Karahanid state that involved territories of East Turkistan and Central Asia during its best bloom period. Capital cities were Kashgar, Taraz, Balasagun, and Samarkand. An independent dynasty of Karluks ruled in Ily valley: their Supreme governor Jhabgu made Kajalyk city as his residence.

Between 10th and beginning of 13th centuries rapid growth of cities is observed. New city centers and tens of settlements appear. Trade and crafts rapidly develop. Merchants and masters' layer grow.

Masters fuse iron and make weapon, items for work and life from them; burn ceramics, blow glass, make ornaments, weave clothes. The skill of jewelers and bronze matters experiences a new rise in Middle Ages epoch.

New tendencies, new tastes and standards come to applied art. Items made by bronze masters - belts, household utensils, dishes, jeweler ornaments are in demand not only at places but also became known in all Eurasia. Turkic masters dictate tastes for manufacturing of belt sets, on a change of styles of manufacturing of belt sets.

Especially the role of trade grows in city development. It was predetermined a fact that in 10-12th centuries one of branches of international Silk way has passed through Ily valley.

Those cities of a valley which occupied central position on lines of the Silk way became larger - Talhiz located on southern suburb of modern Talgar city; Iki-Oguz, in Coksu valley, to east of Taldy-Korgan city on a place of Kent in Kirov village; capital of karluks' dzhabgu Kajalyk city identified with ruins of an ancient Kent in Kojlyk village; Ilybalyk that is nearby modern Zharkent city.

Excavation of some of these kents have allowed to receive notions about what medieval city was, what population was occupied with and what gods people were praying to.

For many years archeological excavations are conducted in Talgar city.

Zhetysu land. Kazakhstan pictures
Square - that area is a consolidated part makes 9 hectares of the city. Towers were settled down on corners of a shaft and on a perimeter, a ditch was available behind a wall. Two entrances were opposite to each other in middle of southwest and northeast walls. A road that divided all territory of the city in two almost equal parts connected them. To reinforced center from all sides constructions were fixed making particular trading-craft suburb, together with which city territory constituted 30 hectares.

Between 10th - the beginning 13thI centuries it turns to the large economic, political and cultural center. Such crafts - rafts, copper rafts, pottery, glass making, jewelers making, bone cutting, and metal cutting were developing. Building business was widely spread. Talgar was on caravan ways connecting the West and the East, that is why here highly artistic metal wares made in Middle East are found out at excavations. Chinese porcelain, a fragment of a Chinese bowl, and a dish with images of winged sphinxes is especially interesting.

The city's population consisted from turcolangual tribes: Karluks, Dzhikils, Tuhsi, Usuns, and Dulats.

In 10-12th century's townspeople have already accepted Islam. Excavations of Mohammedan burials in the city cemetery testify it that are located on southern suburbs of a city on slopes of mountains.

But in inhabitants' lives and in funeral rites pagan features of shamanism, a cult of the sky and the ground, cults of animals (totemism) still remained. There were Buddhists and Christians among inhabitants that are testified by founded figures of Buddha cut out of a bone and things with Christian symbolic.

Interesting group of cities on ancient channels of Ily River - Bakanaskh were found and investigated in Pribalkashye. As it was stated, a segment of Silk way towards Central Kazakhstan passed through these cities. There is no concrete data on cities of Ily in written sources.

In Arabic-Persian lingual literature the name of Ily River occurs at the end of 9th century in "Hudud al-Alem" (Borders of the world) composition of unknown geographer. There is nothing about the lives of cities in later written sources. But direct indication on reason of their death has left. Well-known traveler Gilom Rubruk of 13th century writes about it. On those pages of his book where he wrote about basic reasons why he stayed in Ily valley, it is written:" there were many small towns on the above-stated plain (between Ily and Karatal rivers) they were excellent pasture lands and in order to graze their herds Tatars destroyed those cities".

These events took place in the beginning of 13th century when Semirechye has undergone the invasion of Chengiz-khan armies, and then on this, as well as on others Mongols' territory incessant long years of war and conflict for the supreme authority have burst.

Antonovka town is one of the bright monuments in Zhetysu. It is located in east suburbs of the same modern village, which is now renamed as Koylik. A part of its area is already built up by modern houses, and occupied by gardens. However, quadrangle walls very well define the territory of a medieval settlement.

From one mountain to the south of Koylik we can see the panorama of the city very well. Yellow quadrant walls differentiate well it from the green gardens. A certain arrangement order of hills is traced in east part of a city binding to ancient streets. Surface of the city literally covered by fragments of pottery, iron slags, burnt bricks. There are a lot of fragments of the vessels covered by bright watering. All these have forced archeologists to start excavations here that allowed determining beginning of city life. It was established in 8th century.

Now let us look through the book about which we have already mentioned.

It is called "Travel to the East countries" and written by Giloma Rubruk. He was sent to far capital of Mongolian khan Munke - Karakorum city by French King Lui IX in 1253. He has made a long way full of danger, he crossed Prichernomorsky walls, forwarded through Don and Volga, visited Zoloordinsk city Saraj Batu, through Kazakhstan steppes he reached Talas, and then through Chu and Ily valleys, Tarbagatai and Altai reached Karakorum city.

The monk has left a book that has immortalized his name. In this book Rubruk gave detailed description of everything that he saw in Zhetysu. In autumn of 1253 he reached foothills of Zailijsky Alatau and after some days he wrote, "we have driven into the mountains on which Karakitaj live and have found a big river there through which we had to forward on a vessel". It was deep Ily and ferry through it was below modern Kapchagai city, in Tamgalytas district. It was popular from ancient times. On its rocks images of Buddha are depicted, inscriptions in Tibetan language are written. Grateful people thanked gods for a successful ferry.

Rubruk visited Ekviuse city then, this name sounded as Ikioguz in turoc language, which is located nearby Taldykorgan city, and then he went down to Sarkanda-Baskana-Lepsy river valleys. "This plain, - he has written in his diary, - is well irrigated by waters flowing down from mountains that flow into mentioned sea (Balkhash Lake is meant). On above-mentioned plain there were many small towns but mostly they were destroyed by Tatars who desired to have these pasture lands. We have found big Kajlak city, there was a market and it was visited by merchants". Kajlak corresponds to the city in nowadays Antonovka village about which we have already written.

The city was already mentioned in other written sources earlier. It was a capital of Karluk's dzhagbu, a ruling dynasty of the Turkic state. Rubruk lived in Kajlak city for 12 days and during this time he could sightsee city's markets and other places of interest. Especially he assiduously looked for Christian churches and with this purpose he visited one of the temples of Kumirno but he did not found any similarities to Catholics' cathedrals.

The question is quite objective, Is it the Buddhist temple that was dug out in Antonovka city, is it the same temple seen by Rubruk? Probably yes, now we can quite confidently compare the characteristics made by Rubruk and results of archeological excavations of the temple.

Tamgaly. Zhetysu land. Kazakhstan pictures
According to archeological finds, such as carved facing bricks, there was a mosque in the city. The majority of inhabitants of Kajalyk city were Mohammedans as well as of other cities of Zhetysu at those times. Karluk's Dzhabgu as well as Karahanids have probably made Islam as state's religion in 940.

Rubruk has left Kajlak city in Saint Andrey's day that according to Christian calendar is November 30. "There nearby - he wrote - in three le distance, we have found a settlement which is completely Nestorian. We went to their church and we have sung with great pleasure as loudly as was possible: "Rejoice Queen" because we did not see the church for a long time". So, nearby Kajlak in three le the monk had seen Nestorian, Christian settlement.

After leaving it after three days, he wrote, we have reached capital of this area, in above mentioned sea which seemed to us as rough as ocean. My comrade has come nearer to its coast and wet a linen fabric in order to taste water; it was saltish but nevertheless it was suitable for a drink. Among big mountains in southeast direction a valley lasted, and then between mountains there was a big sea. Strong wind continuously blows in this valley so that people pass in a great fear of being carried by wind into the sea. So, we were forwarded through the valley, going to the north towards big mountains that were covered by deep snows lying on the ground...". Following Rubruk's route archeologists, in 6 kms (3 le) to the east from Antonovsk city, have found the rests of medieval settlement located on the left coast of Lepsy river near a ferry. Probably it corresponds to the Nestorian settlement.

Further Rubruk has reached Alakol in which it is not difficult to recognize "the sea as rough as ocean" and on its coast Koktuma city was revealed which corresponds to "capital of an area".

The valley, which was between two lakes, is probably Dzungarian Gates.

According to written sources and archeological data Zhetysu in the epoch of Middle Ages was the region with highly developed culture created by cattlemen and farmers. The city and steppe made here the uniform political, economic and cultural whole. The large city centers - Almaty about which Babar informs us, Talgar, which is mentioned in th of 10th century "Hudud-al Alem", Iki-Oguz known from the composition of Mahmud Kashgar of 11th century, Kajlik (Kajlak), described by G.Rubruk in the middle of 13th century, they all stood on a brisk site of Great Silk way and were known to merchants, scientists, diplomats, travelers of China and Iran, Byzantium and India, Europe and Asia. However, traditions of settled way of life and agricultural life never died. Kazakhs were engaged in cattle breeding, including nomadic, and also cultivation of grain on rich and irrigated grounds in Zhetysu in 15-17th, 18th, 19th centuries about which scientists and travelers have written. Among them are C.C.Valikhanov, Yanushkevich who describe Kazakh settlements in foothills of Dzungarian and Zajlisky Alatau. The rests of these settlements and constant wintering of Kazakh in Chu - Ily Mountains are found and investigated by modern researchers.

Traditions of material and spiritual culture of our ancestors are still alive and show the contribution of Kazakhstan to a treasury of a world civilization. Now Zhetysu is the large economic and cultural region of the country.

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